The Bay of Pigs Invasion
The Bay of Pigs invasion or La Batalla de Giron was a failed attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro by the Cuban exiles, supported by the U.S. government armed forces. On April 17, 1961, the Cuban exiles executed the plan, trained by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The main aim of the attack was to gain U.S. recognition and take over the beachhead. The operation was planned as a means of overriding the Castro’s government without disclosing U.S. intervention in the attack.
US-Cuban tension had grown increasingly antagonistic since the Cuban revolution and the U.S. was not able to tolerate the Cuban ties with the Soviet Union. The U.S. government was dissatisfied with the policies of Castro including the nationalization of U.S. assets. The administration of Eisenhower and Kennedy authorized the CIA to come up with any action plans to remove Castro from the power. Finally, the CIA decided to use Cuban exiles to remove Castro and his government.
Key Players of Bay of Pigs Invasion
The most important key players of Bay of Pigs invasion were Dwight D. Eisenhower, Richard M. Nixon, Robert F. Kennedy, John F. Kennedy, Allen W. Dulles, and Fidel Castro.
Richard M. Nixon proposed the plan for the invasion and Dwight D. Eisenhower approved the initial planning and budget for the attack. Robert F. Kennedy championed the invasion and supported many covert operations against Fidel Castro. John F. Kennedy approved the operation and took responsibility for its failure. Allen W. Dulles was responsible for managing top level planning and execution of the invasion. He was accused for misleading Kennedy and was fired by Kennedy. Fidel Castro responded with enthusiasm against the U.S. armed forces and defeated the invaders.
How United States was Defeated
Later in the day of 17th, Castro himself took charge of the commanding troops, air forces, and defense. The Cubans fought the invaders for two days to a deadlock. Although the Cuban troops were not well trained or armed, the invaders were pushed back steadily. Despite, effective U.S air force, the result was inevitable and unavoidable. On April 19, 1961, the invading forces surrendered and 1,197 were taken prisoner. The invaders troop failed because of the inability to stop the Cuban force, risky landing site, and overestimation of Cuban exiles.
Long Term Effects
The failed attempt embarrassed the Kennedy government and made Castro suspicious of future U.S. invasion in Cuba. The success pushed the Castro’s force closer to the Soviet Union, which led to the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. The invasion reinforced Castro’s position and heightened his popularity around the world. The growing threat of communalism made U.S. government to follow many controversial laws, which increased the tension and the cold war increased among U.S. and other countries.